A published report to a National Beef Association revealed the results of a study which demonstrated ALL intramuscular injections (using a hand syringe) resulted in undesirable effects to the treated muscle tissue.  As a result, the beef industry has recommended cattle producers choose subcutaneous medications.
Not unlike administering medication with a hand syringe, if the administer selects an incorrect needle length or neglects to pierce the hide at a specific angle, medication intended for subcutaneous injection may inadvertently be delivered intramuscularly.  Selecting the incorrect cannula (needle) length for a remote drug delivery device is equally important.  In addition to targeting the “O-Zone™” of the animal, selecting the correct length of needle is paramount when delivering medication remotely.
Pneu-Dart advocates the use of ½” 14ga. heavy wall cannula for subcutaneous injections delivered remotely. Cannula exceeding ½” may inadvertently result in an intramuscular injection.
Please note: Some veterinarians may promote the use of ¾” cannula on particular adult hooved stocked species throughout specific regions during select times of the year.